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06 NOV 2018

FALLOPIANS TUBE CANCER – How it can be detected?

The fallopian tubes are a pair of thin tubes that transport the egg from the ovaries to the uterus. They can either be fertilized or discarded along the process of menstruation. The ovary release one egg every month and the cilia (hair-like projections inside the uterus) transports them to the ovary. This is a normal process for all women who have attended the reproductive age.

When cancer develops?

An abnormal growth of the malignant cells in the fallopian tubes leads to fallopian tube cancer. Most of the cancer that occurs in the fallopian tube is known as papillary serous adenocarcinomas. These are cancers that originate from the abnormal cells of the fallopian tube. When cells have the capability to invade other organs or spread to surrounding cells of the organ, there are high chances of tumor formation. When tumors are formed from the smooth cells of the fallopian tube, they are known as leiomyosarcomas.

The potential causes and risks involved

Out of all gynecological cancers, primary fallopian tube cancer accounts for no more than one percent. The most common age segment for this case is from 40 to 65 and is more frequently diagnosed in Caucasian women as compared to African women. While the exact causes and risk factors of fallopian tube cancer are not known, some conditions that are commonly associated with this condition involves chronic inflammation of the fallopian tube, repeated infection in the ovarian region, prolonged usage of birth control pills. Apart from this, a family history of fallopian tube cancer poses a woman at greater risk of inheriting this. Genetic mutation is also known to be causing this condition.

The early signs

Some of the evident signs of fallopian tube cancer include vaginal discharge, abdominal pain, and vaginal bleeding. The pain is of dull or colicky nature.

Diagnosing the cancer

A pelvic examination that involves a thorough investigation of the vagina, fallopian tube, ovaries, and uterus can show signs of fallopian tube cancer. A Pap smear test by scraping off a sample of the cervix is done and tested for malignancy. Many doctors are of the view that an ultrasound test helps to detect fallopian tube cancer. Some doctors might even order a transvaginal ultrasound to get a detailed view of the fallopian tube. Apart from this, other lab tests and imaging tests are also necessary to zero in on the diagnosis.

Know the cure

The treatment plan is decided after evaluation the stage of cancer, the current health of the patient, previous medical history, etc. The common course of a treatment plan is a surgery to ensure that all cancer-affected part of the fallopian tube is completely removed followed by a chemotherapy plan to ensure that cancer doesn’t spread to other organs of the body. In some cases, radiation therapy is also used before the surgery to shrink the size of the tumor.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

12 DEC 2018

UTERINE CANCER – Ways it can be treated!

Uterine cancer is often treated with a combination of treatments. The recommendation of treatment option depends on the factors such as stage and type of cancer, age, the overall health of the patient, side effects, personal preference etc. Another important consideration that goes before taking a call on the treatment option includes the research on the patient’s ability to bear a child in future. But, overall, the treatment plan includes surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormone therapy etc.


Surgery is often the first step towards removing the tumor and a few healthy tissues around it. Some of the common surgical procedure include hysterectomy, lymph node dissection, and sentinel lymph node biopsy.

1. Hysterectomy: The extent of the cancer spread decides the type of procedure a surgeon can perform. Hysterectomy is the removal of the cervix and the uterus. For patients whose cancer has spread significantly, a surgeon performs a radical hysterectomy- removal of the vagina, cervix, uterus and some healthy tissues from the nearby region. For patients who have had menopause in their health history, doctors choose to perform a procedure known as the salpingo-oophorectomy. This involves the removal of both the ovaries and the fallopian tube.

2. Lymph node dissection: This is quite similar to hysterectomy. The surgeon might remove the lymph nodes to ensure that cancer doesn’t spread beyond the uterus. .

3. Sentinel lymph node biopsy: This is another process to determine whether cancer has spread to the lymph nodes and the surrounding areas. This procedure is effective in determining other cancers type as well such as cancer-related to the breasts. .

4. Radiation Therapy: This is a kind of therapy that involves the use of high-energy rays that could destroy cancer cells. Radiation is given at a fixed dosage over a limited number of days. This method of treatment is typically used in addition to a surgery. In most cases, a surgery followed by radiation therapy helps a patient to fight cancer more effectively. Many oncologists might also want a patient to take radiation therapy to shrink the size of a tumor before going for a surgery. The most common radiation therapy is external beam radiation therapy. .

5. Chemotherapy: This procedure involves the use of powerful drugs to destroy cancer cells. There are claims that it effectively reduces the ability of the cancer cells to grow and spread. Chemotherapy is usually suggested after a surgery or can be individually applied to a cancer patient. Chemotherapy can be applied in orally or in the form of IV. The period of chemotherapy like radiotherapy is applicable for a specified amount of cycle over a limited number of days. This form of treatment is most preferred when cancer recurs in a patient after a considerable amount of time. They are equally effective in uterine cancer as well. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Oncologist.

18 DEC 2018

CERVICAL CANCER VACCINE – Kill it before it kills you


Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix, the narrow opening into the uterus from the vagina.

What are the causes of cervical cancer?

Most cervical cancers are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection. More than 70 percent of cervical cancer cases can be attributed to two types of the virus, HPV-16 and HPV-18, often referred to as high-risk HPV types.

What are the symptoms of cervical cancer?

Precancerous cervical cell changes and early cancers of the cervix generally do not cause symptoms.

Possible symptoms of more advanced disease may include abnormal or irregular vaginal bleeding, pain during sex, or vaginal discharge.

How to treat cervical cancer?

Widespread immunization with the HPV vaccine could reduce the impact of cervical cancer worldwide.

What is the role of HPV vaccine?

This vaccine can prevent most cases of cervical cancer if given before a girl or woman is exposed to the virus. In addition, this vaccine can prevent vaginal and vulvar cancer in women, and can prevent genital warts and anal cancer in women and men.

Does HPV vaccine contains any live virus?

No. HPV vaccine contains a virus like particles, but not the virus itself.

How HPV vaccine is administered?

HPV vaccines is administered intramuscularly in the deltoid region of the upper arm or in the higher outer area of the thigh. The preferred site of administration is the deltoid region of the upper arm.

Who is the HPV vaccine for?

For girls and boys ages 11 or 12, although some organizations recommend starting the vaccine as early as age 9 or 10.

When the HPV vaccine should be given?

It's ideal for girls and boys to receive the vaccine before they have sexual contact and are exposed to HPV because once someone is infected with the virus, the vaccine might not be as effective or might not work at all.

Who should not take the HPV vaccine?

The HPV vaccine isn't recommended for pregnant women or people who are moderately or severely ill.

28 DEC 2018

My mom give me cancer ? The genetic of cancer


Genes are in the DNA of each cell in your body. They control how the cell functions, including:

1. How quickly it grows

2. How often it divides

3. How long it lives


Inside almost every single cell in your body is a structure called the nucleus, which is the control centre of the cell. Inside the nucleus are 23 pairs of chromosomes made up of genes.


Genes are coded messages that tell cells how to behave. They control how our bodies grow and develop. We each have about 25,000 genes. All cancers develop because something has gone wrong with one or more of the genes in a cell. A change in a gene is called a ‘fault’ or ‘mutation’.

  • Usually a cell must have 6 or more gene faults before it becomes cancerous.
  • These faults can make a cell stop working properly.
  • It may then become cancerous and divide and grow uncontrollably.
  • Most gene changes happen during our lifetime but some can be inherited from a parent.


Acquired mutations: They occur from damage to genes in a particular cell during a person’s life. This cell then goes on to divide many times and form a tumor.

Factors that cause these mutations include:

1. Tobacco

2. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation

3. Viruses

4. Age

Germline mutations: These are less common. A germline mutation occurs in a sperm cell or egg cell. It passes directly from a parent to a child at the time of conception. As the embryo grows into a baby, the mutation from the initial sperm or egg cell is copied into every cell within the body. Because the mutation affects reproductive cells, it can pass from generation to generation.

Cancer caused by germline mutations is called inherited cancer. It accounts for about 5% to 20% of all cancers.


Genetic specialists estimate that between 3 and 10 in every 100 cancers (3 to 10%) diagnosed are linked to an inherited faulty gene. But the evidence is not completely clear.


In families with an inherited faulty gene there may be a pattern of specific types of cancer running in the family.

The strength of your family history depends on:

  • Who in your family has had cancer?
  • How old they were at diagnosis?

The more relatives who have had the same or related types of cancer, and the younger they were at diagnosis, the stronger someone’s family history is. This means that it is more likely that the cancers are being caused by an inherited faulty gene. Having a couple of relatives diagnosed with cancer over the age of 60 doesn’t mean there is a cancer gene running in the family.


Increased cancer screening is often available which aims to detect cancer at an earlier more treatable stage.

In some situations, surgery may be available to lower the risk of cancer. Lifestyle changes such as; changes to diet, increasing exercise, and stopping smoking can also reduce the risk of cancer.


Genetic testing looks at the DNA code for a specific gene or genes. It provides information about the gene(s) which are analyzed and is usually performed on a blood or saliva sample.

There are several different types of testing available including:

1. Diagnostic testing. This attempts to find the possible cause of cancer within the family and is best performed on someone who has had cancer.

2. Predictive testing. When the familial mutation is known it is possible to give relatives a definitive answer:

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